Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most prevalent malignancy of the larynx. Non-squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx are rare and consist of different pathology types.
Method: The present work is a retrospective study of non-squamous cell carcinoma (non-SCC) of the larynx in the south of Iran during a seven-year period.
Results: Among 517 patients with laryngeal cancers, seven (0.13%) had non-SCC. The mean age was 59.1 (39-71) years, and six were male. The main complaint of two of the patients was neck mass, five cases had hoarseness, and one had dyspnea. One subject had both dyspnea and hoarseness. Out of three cases of neuroendocrine tumor, two had radical surgery and afterwards, radiotherapy (RT) was given for one of them. Both cases are well and disease-free. The other patient was a 58-year-old man and was treated with chemoradiation. He died due to brain metastasis following 12 months. Our patient with osteosarcoma is well controlled with surgery, chemotherapy, and RT. We had two male cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma who had undergone total laryngectomy and supraglottic laryngectomy. Both of them received RT (60 or 70 Gy dose) and both are well after 60 and 48 months. A 51-year-old patient with chondrosarcoma had undergone total laryngectomy, who was well after 36 months.
Conclusion: Treatment of non-SCC of the larynx is an extrapolation from the treatment of the more common site of each pathology type. Further studies are needed to draw a firm conclusion.