Background: Given the prognostic importance of cytogenetic aberrations in plasma cell neoplasms, the present retrospective study was conducted to analyze cytogenetic abnormalities in plasma cell myeloma cases in a single center in the Middle East.
Method: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we selected 42 patients referred to the molecular and cytogenetic department from 2013 to 2016 for initial assessment by immunohistochemical, flow cytometric, and cytogenetic studies. Chromosomal analysis was performed after a 72-hour unsynchronized culture and Giemsa banding; the result was reported according to ISCN 2016.
Results: 32.5% of the patients showed an abnormal karyotype, of whom 53.8% were hyperdiploid and the rest were assigned to the non-hyperdiploid group. The gain of 1q and monosomy 13/ deletion 13q were the most common structural abnormalities accounting for 38.4% and 30.7%, respectively. t(11;14) was the only detected 14q32 rearrangement observed in 15.4% of the cases. The mean survival time in normal, hyperdiploid, and non-hyperdiploid groups was 29.5±1.7, 16.6±2.9 and 6.1±2.1 months, respectively.
Conclusion: Cytogenetic abnormalities of plasma cell myeloma in this center were relatively similar to previous reports in the literature; moreover, hyperdiploidy was the most common cytogenetic aberration. As no cryptic aberration could be identified, we recommend the use of more precise techniques such as FISH in addition to conventional G banding to detect cryptic aberrations. Survival of the non-hyperdiploid group was the worst.