Background: Amygdalin is a glycoside ingredient of rosacea plants that exerts an antitumor effect by blocking the growth of the tumor cells. Therefore, we aimed to use the Armeniacae semen, a member of the Rosacea family, which contains a large amount of the amygdalin, to evaluate its antiproliferative effect on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T47D breast cancer cell lines.
Method: In this experimental study, we prepared the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and hydro-alcoholic extracts of the Armeniacae semen. The MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T47D cell lines were treated with different doses of the extracts for 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours; cell viability was investigated with MTT test and cell apoptosis was detected by use of double staining fluorescent. Cell cycle progression was analyzed using a BD Cycle TEST PLUS DNA Kit. We also assessed Bcl2, Bax, and caspase-3 mRNA expression.
Results: The best IC50s belonged to hydro-alcoholic extract of the Armeniacae semen in all three cell lines for the 48-hour treatment. We observed a significant increase in Bax and caspase-3 mRNA expression and a noticeable reduction in Bcl2 mRNA compared with the controls. Application of amygdalin to MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T47D cell lines increased the number of G0/G1 cells and reduced the number of cells at G2/M phasecompared to the controls.
Conclusion: This study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of Prunus armeniaca had antitumor effects on breast cancer cell lines as it inhibited the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis induction in the MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T47D cell lines.