Background: The variety of neoadjuvant treatments concerning rectal cancer has led to acute complications. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the acute complications of short-course (SC) and long-course (LC) radiotherapy.
Method: We studied 100 patients suffering from rectal cancer, who referred to Nemazee Hospital before their surgery, in this cross-sectional study. The patients were divided into two categories: SC (25 grays radiotherapy at 5 fractions in 5 days) and LC (chemoradiotherapy with a dose of 45-50.4 grays in 25- 28 fraction in 5-6 weeks with concurrent Capecitabine (825 mg / m2) twice daily and five days a week). Subsequently, we evaluated them for acute complications in the SC group 10-14 days after the end of the treatment and in the LC group at intervals of the treatment, the end of it and 2 weeks afterwards.
Results: In the LC group compared to the SC group, the percentage of patients with grade 1 diarrhea, grade 2 colitis and grade 1 cystitis at the end of the treatment was statistically different (p <0.001, P=0.046, P=0.036 ). In addition, the total number of the patients with grade 1 and 2 dermatitis was higher in the LC group compared with that in the SC group (P=0.046). We observed no significant differences between the two groups concerning the severe acute complications (P>0.05).
Conclusion: This study implied that there were no significant differences regarding severe acute complication between the two groups.