Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. The objective of this study was to determine the breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography compliance based on health belief model constructs among female healthcare workers in the city of Aq Qala.
Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional study between November 2015 and February 2016 in Aq Qala city, northern Iran. In this regard, we selected 261 female healthcare workers through census. Data were gathered using Rakowski’s stages of change and Champion health belief model scale. We entered the collected data into SPSS 16 and analyzed them via descriptive statistical techniques along with Kruskal- Wallis, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient.
Results: The results showed that 26.4 % of the participants performed regular BSE and 19.3% underwent regular mammogram. Those with regular BSE had significantly more health motivation and self-efficacy (P≤0.05). Physicians had more susceptibility and self-efficacy for BSE and less BSE barriers (P≤0.05). There was a negative correlation between BSE confidence and barriers (r=-0.376). The results of binary logistic regression revealed that confidence was the only variable influencing BSE (OR=1.77, 95% CI=1.22, 2.572).
Conclusion: Almost one-fourth of female healthcare workers of Aq Qala performed regular BSE. Moreover, one-fifth of women over 40 years of age underwent regular mammograms. Participants who performed regular BSE had higher health motivation, BSE self-efficacy, and lower perceived barriers. BSE adherence was more in physicians than in other groups. We recommend increasing confidence to surmount the barriers to perform BSE.