Background: Acute myeloid leukemia, as most cancers, results from exposure to carcinogens and an impaired inherited individual capacity to eliminate xenobiotics. The present case-control study measures the relationship between glutathione S-transferase (GST) T1 and M1 null genotypes and the risk of acute myeloid leukemia.Methods: We identified the GSTT1 andGSTM1 genotypes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in 129 acute myeloid leukemia patients and 129 controls.Results: Individuals that carried GSTT1 null had a risk of acute myeloid leukemia when compared to GSTT1 present carriers (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.63-4.80, P=0.00036). However, GSTM1 null did not influence the risk for acute myeloid leukemia (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.72-1.97, P=0.53). The combined GSTT1 null/GSTM1 present genotype showed an association with the risk for acute myeloid leukemia compared to those that carried both functional genotypes (OR: 8.85; 95% CI: 3.09-23.8, P=0.0001). The double null genotype also showed an association with the risk for acute myeloid leukemia (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.15-4.66, P=0.019).Conclusion: Both GSTT1 null and GST double-null genotypes may be risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.