A Comparison of Endothelial Cell-Selective Adhesion Molecule and von Willebrand Factor Expression in Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis
Background: Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessels formation that contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule is one of the proteins that expresses in vascular endothelial cells. In vitro and animal studies have shown involvement of this protein in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. von Willebrand factor is a protein expressed by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes that has a role in blood clotting processes. In the current study, we investigate the expression of endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule and von Willebrand factor in carcinoma mammae specimens and explore their correlation with tumor growth and metastasis.
Methods: We obtained 79 specimens from paraffin blocks of patients diagnosed with invasive breast carcinoma of no special type. The slides from these specimens were then stained with endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule, von Willebrand factor, and Ki-67 antibodies to assess vascular numbers and cell proliferation.
Results: We found a total of 31 (39%) low vascularity and 48 (61%) high vascularity samples from endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule staining. There were 34 (43%) low vascularity and 45 (54%) high vascularity samples by von Willebrand factor staining. There was a significant correlation of blood vessel numbers in the endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule-stained samples with tumor volume, metastasis to lymph nodes, and proliferation cells. The von Willebrand factor-expressed samples only had a significant correlation of vascular number with tumor volume.
Conclusion: Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule and von Willebrand factor as the endothelial cell expressed proteins play a role in the angiogenesis process of breast cancer. However, endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule expression is more consistent than von Willebrand factor in predicting the presence or absence of metastatic breast cancer.
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