Wilms’ Tumor: Histopathological Variants and the Outcomes of 31 Cases at a Tertiary Care Center in Northern India
Background: Wilms’ tumor is the most common malignant renal tumor in the pediatric age group. This tumor is classically managed by multimodal treatment which involves surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. While there is plenty of data in world literature on the outcome of Wilms’ tumor, there is a paucity of data from India.
Methods: All patients with proven diagnosis of Wilms’ tumor between 2008 to 2012 were noted from the hospital’s cancer registry. We performed detailed analyses of all patients’ clinical case records for demographic profiles, clinical features, imaging studies, treatment, and outcome. Histopathological classification of the tumor determined the patient’s post-operative management. All patients were followed for a period of 3 years and we analyzed the eventual outcome in the form of disease-free survival, complications, tumor recurrence, and mortality.
Results: There were 31 cases of Wilms’ tumor included in this study. The median age of presentation was 3-4 years (range: 5 months-6 years) with a female: male ratio of 1.2:1. Abdominal mass was the chief presenting feature in 20 (64.5%) patients followed by abdominal pain in 6 (19.3%). All children had unilateral disease, 25 (80.6%) had right-sided and 6 (19.3%) had left-sided disease. Bilateral disease was seen in only one case. Of the 31 cases of Wilms’ tumor, 36% cases presented with stages I and II disease, 55% had stage III, and 9% of the cases were stage IV. Most cases of Wilms’ tumor were stage III. The majority had classical Wilms’ tumor with a favourable histology. The estimated 5-year event free survival was 87.3%
Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach can approach similar survival rates compared to the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group, even in the Indian scenario. Further improvement in survival of these children can only be achieved by increasing awareness, early recognition, appropriate referral, and a multidisciplinary approach.
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