Document Type: Review Article

Authors

Department of Biochemistry, Era’s Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, India

Abstract

MicroRNAs are tiny, 18-25 nucleotides in length, non-coding RNA molecules preserved throughout evolution. These molecules primarily control gene expression at the post-transcriptional and transcriptional levels. MicroRNAs control target gene expression by a phenomenon known as RNA interference. RNA interference based therapeutics that utilize target gene silencing/degradation by specific microRNAs have potentially enormous advantages over traditional methodologies to treat diseases such as cancers with wide-ranging applicability, precision, and therapeutic selectivity, with decreased adverse side effects. If microRNA profiles can accurately predict malignancies, this technology may be exploited as a tool to surmount diagnostic challenges. This review highlights the successful use of RNA interference inducers against different type of cancers, thereby paving the way for specific therapeutic medicines. Studies have shown the association of microRNA dysregulation with diseases such as cancer. MicroRNAs can function as oncogenes as well as tumor suppressors. Thus, microRNA expression profiles can be used to determine prognosis, predict treatment efficiency and response to drug therapy, as well as patient susceptibility to cancer and metastasis. In addition, they may offer new candidate targets to be exploited for both prognostic and therapeutic strategies in patients with cervical cancer.